*Personality - an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
Free Association - in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
*Psychoanalysis - Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts.
Unconscious - according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware.
Preconscious - in Freud's theory, the level of consciousness in which thoughts and feelings are not conscious but are readily retrieveable to consciousness.
*Id - contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. Operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.
Pleasure Principle - Freud's theory regarding the id's desire to maximize pleasure and minimize pain in order to achieve immediate gratification..
*Ego - the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. Operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.
Reality Principle (our presentation of self thru our personality)- According the Freud, the attempt by the ego to satisfy both the id and the superego while still considering the reality of the situation.
*Superego - the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations.
Psychosexual Stages - the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.
Oral Stage - Freud's first stage of psychosexual development during which pleasure is centered in the mouth.
Anal Stage - Freud's second stage of psychosexual development where the primary sexual focus is on the elimination or holding onto feces. The stage is often thought of as representing a child's ability to control his or her own world.
Phallic Stage - The third of Freud's psychosexual development in which genitals are the source of pleasure and the Oedipus Complex begins.
*Oedipus Complex - according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father.
Identification - the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos.
Gender Identity - one's sense of being male or female.
Latency Stage - In Freud's Psychosexual Stages when you have dormant sexual feelings ( 6 - puberty).
Genital Stage - Freud's stage of psychosexual development when adult sexuality is prominent.
*Fixation - according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved.
*Defense Mechanisms - in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.
*Repression - in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.
*Regression - psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated.
*Reaction Formation - psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings.
Ex: Because Andrew is afraid of being gay, he becomes homophobic.
*Projection - psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.
*Rationalization - defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions.
*Displacement - psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet.
Ex: Whenever Penny is mad at her boss, she gets mad at her kids because she then she can't get in trouble.
*Sublimation - a defense mechanism in which unacceptable energies are directed into socially acceptable outlets, such as sports.
Ex: Because Catherine is lonely at home, she spends all her time studying.
Denial-refusing to acknowledge consciously the existence of something
*Collective Unconscious - Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history.
*Projective Tests - a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli to trigger projection of one's inner thoughts and feelings.
TAT - a projective test in which subjects look at and tell a story about ambiguous pictures.
Rorschach Inkblot Test - the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.
Trait - a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports.
Personality Inventory - a questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits.
MMPI-2 - the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes.
Big 5 (CANOE)-Trait perspective test that narrows down to 5 main dimensions of personality: conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Neuroticisim, Openness, Extraversion
Empirically Derived Test - a test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups. (scale of range on how you fall on those items)
*Self Actualization - according to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential.
*Unconditional Positive Regard - according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person.
Self Concept - (1) a sense of one's identity and personal worth. (2) all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question "Who am I?"
Self-Esteem - one's feelings of high or low self-worth.
*Self Serving Bias - a readiness to perceive oneself favorably.
Reciprocal Determinism - the interacting influences between personality and environmental factors.
*Individualist culture - giving priority to one's own goals over group goals, and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications.
*Collectivist culture - giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly.
Ex: China, Japan
Personal Control - our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless.
*External Locus of Control - the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's fate.
*Internal Locus of Control - the perception that one controls one's own fate.
*Learned Helplessness - the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.
*Positive Psychology - the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive.
Social Cognitive Perspective - views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons (and their thinking) and their social context.
*Spotlight Effect - overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us).
Terror Management Theory - purposes that faith in one's worldview and the pursuit of self-esteem provide protection agaisnt a deeply rooted fear or death.
People to Know
*Carl Jung - referred to mid-life as the "afternoon of life." Mid-life serves an important preparation for late adulthood, which he calls "the evening of life."
Describes Myers-Briggs Personality Types More in Depth: http://www.personalitypage.com/html/info.html
Videos to Watch
Charts for Memorization
Sigmund Freud's Stages for Psychosexual Developments
Pictures for Visual Association
This is the chapter all about everyone's favorite subject: you. Through this chapter, you will find out more about yourself through personality tests, such as the Myers-Briggs Test. Be careful with Sigmund Freud's Id, Ego, and Superego because these often mess up students, so make sure you have them down.