Note: Terms with asterisks* next to it are in my opinion important terms. I just went by quickly by recognition alone, so don't rely too heavily on them.
*Psychology - the science of behavior and mental processes.
Structuralism - an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind.
Functionalism - a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function—how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish.
Behaviorism - the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
Humanistic Psychology - historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth.
Cognitive Neuroscience - the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).
*Nature vs. Nurture - the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors.
*Natural Selection - the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
Levels of Analysis - the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon.
Biopsychosocial Approach - an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis.
*Basic Research - pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.
*Applied Research - scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.
Counseling Psychology - a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being.
Clinical Psychology - a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.
Psychiatry - a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy.
SQ3R - a study method incorporating five steps: Survey, Question, Read, Rehearse, Review.
People to Know
Note: This individual set of names doesn't include the psychologists' major achievements or experiments, but merely their way to approach psychology and the school of thought they belong to. This is all that one would need to know at this beginning stage of AP Psychology because their contributions will be learned later on.
*Socrates - mind is separate from the body and continues after the body dies; knowledge is innate; derived principles from logic
*Plato - same as Socrates; also a student of Socrates
*Aristotle - derived principles from careful observation; the soul is NOT separate from the body; knowledge is not pre-existing but grows from experiences stored in memory; student of Plato (Empiricism)
Rene Descartes - dissected animals and concluded the fluid in brain cavities was animal spirits; mind is distinct from the body; on the right path to nerves and nerve pathways; agreed with Socrates & Plato
Francis Bacon - fascinated by the human mind and its failings; our minds hunger to perceive patterns in random events; spoke to the idea of superstitions
*John Locke - mind at birth is a blank slate; added to Bacon;s idea; helped to form the idea of empiricism (Empiricism)
*Wilhelm Wundt - father of psychology; first lab experiment in Dec. 1879 in Germany; opened the door to a new science and many branches of psychology (Structuralism)
Edward Titchner - introduced structuralism and used introspection to discover elements of the mind (Structuralism)
William James - encouraged exploration of down to earth memories, emotions, will powers, habits, and moment to moment streams of consciousness; professor; mentor to Mary Calkins (Functionalism)
Mary Calkins - studied under James; went to Harvard but was denied a degree because she was female; went on to become the APA president
Margaret Washburn - first female to receive a degree from Harvard and second female APA president
*Sigmund Freud - Austrian physician; developed theory on personality; psychoanalytic theory; studied the unconscious
*John Watson - behaviorist; dismissed introspection and redefined psychology as the scientific study of human behavior; believed science was rooted in observation (Behaviorism)
*B.F. Skinner - same as Watson (Behaviorism)
*Abraham Maslow - humanist; emphasized the importance of current environmental influences on our growth potential, and the importance of meeting our needs for love and acceptance (Humanism)
*Carl Rogers - same as Maslow (Humanism)
*Charles Darwin - natural selection; his ideas have become the organizing principle of biology; evolution has become an important principle for 21st century psychology (Functionalism)
Videos to Watch
Psych Sim 5 Activities
Charts for Memorization
For More Information
The Story of Psychology
The story of psychology leads us back to the days of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. It lays the basis of psychology and gives us a peek into what psychology concepts breed from. It lays the basis of psychology with information and names that you will talk about more throughout the year.