Memory - persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
*Flashbulb Memory - clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
*Encoding - processing of information into the memory system-- for example, by extracting meaning.
Storage - retention of encoded information over time.
Retrieval - process of getting information out of memory storage.
*Sensory Memory - immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
*Short-Term Memory - activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.
*Long-Term Memory - relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
Automatic Processing - unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
*Effortful Processing - encoding that requires attention and consious effort.
Rehearsal - conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage.
*Spacing Effect - tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
*Serial Position Effect - our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.
Visual Encoding - encoding of picture images.
Acoustic Encoding - encoding of sound, especially the sound of words.
*Semantic Encoding - encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words.
Imagery - mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding.
*Mnemonics - memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
*Chunking - organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.
*Iconic Memory - a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
*Echoic Memory - a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
Long-Term Potentiation(LTP) - an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief; rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.
*Amnesia - the loss of memory.
*Implicit Memory - retention independent of conscious recollection [Procedural Memory].
*Explicit Memory - memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare" [Declarative Memory].
*Hippocampus - a neural center that is located in the limbic system and helps process explicit memories for storage.
Recall - a measure or memory in which the person must retireve info. learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
Recognition - measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test.
Relearning - memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time.
*Priming - activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.
*Deja Vu - that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
*Mood-Congruent Memory - tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.
*Proactive Interference - disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.
*Retroactive Interference - disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.
*Repression - psychoanalytic theory, the basic defence mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories.
*Misinformation Effect - incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.
*Source Amnesia - attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined.
Videos to Watch
Below Video Tip: Déjà vu never happened to you.
Psych Sim 5 Activities
Articles/Books to Read
Click this Link to Go to Documentaries Section and look under "Memory" category to Find Associated Videos...
One of my overall favorite chapters, which explores the scope and range of memory. How does one not remember what they had for breakfast the day before but remembers exactly what happened when the twin towers collapsed? This chapter explores the mystery and mystic of memory.