Cognition - the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
Concept - a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
*Prototype - a mental image or best example of a category.
*Algorithm - a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier -- but also more error-prone -- use of heuristics.
*Heuristic - a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.
*Insight - a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions.
*Confirmation Bias - A tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions.
*Fixation - the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving.
*Mental Set - a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past.
*Functional Fixedness - the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving.
*Representativeness Heuristic - judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information.
*Availability Heuristic - estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory.
*Overconfidence - the tendency to be more confident than correct--to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments.
*Framing - the way an issue is posed; how as issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments.
*Belief Bias - the tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid or valid conclusions seem invalid.
*Belief Perseverance - clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
Language - our spoken written or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning.
Phoneme - in a language the smallest distinctive sound unit.
Morpheme - in a language the smallest unit that carries meaning.
Grammar - in a language a system of rules that enables us to communicate and understand others.
Semantics - the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes words and sentences in a given language also the study of meaning.
Syntax - the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language.
*Babbling Stage - beginning at about 4 months the stage of speech development from about age 1 to 2 during which a child speaks mostly in single words.
Two-Word Stage - beginning about age 2 the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in 2 word statements.
Telegraphic Speech - early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting auxiliary words.
*Linguistic Determinism - Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think.
Videos to Watch
Psych Sim 5 Activities
Thinking and Language
Language is the thing that shapes the way you think. How is it that your thoughts change the way you think and the way that you approach problems? Frauds in thinking are also talked about in this chapter.