*Consciousness - our awareness of ourselves and our environment.
Biological Rhythms - Periodic physiological fluctuations.
*Circadian Rhythm - the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle.
*REM Sleep - rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur.
*Alpha Waves - the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state.
*Sleep Spindles - short bursts of brain waves (increased frequency) detected in stage 2 sleep
*Hallucinations - false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus.
*Sleep - periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness.
*Delta Waves - the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep.
*Insomnia - recurring problems in falling or staying asleep.
*Narcolepsy - a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.
*Sleep Apnea - a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings.
Night Terrors - a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during Stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered.
*Manifest Content - according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream.
*Latent Content - according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream.
REM Rebound - the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep).
Hypnosis - a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur.
Posthypnotic Suggestion - a suggestion that is made to a person who is hypnotized that specifies an action he will perform (usually in response to a cue) after he has awakened.
*Addiction - compulsive drug craving and use.
Dream - a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind.
Dissociation - a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others.
Hidden Observer - Hilgard's term describing a hypnotized subject's awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis.
*Psychoactive Drug - a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood.
Tolerance - the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect.
*Withdrawal - the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug.
Physical Dependence - a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued.
Psychological Dependence - a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions.
*Depressants - drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.
*Stimulants - drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.
*Hallucinogens - psychedelic ("mind-manifesting") drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input.
*Barbiturates - drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment.
*Opiates - opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety.
*Amphetamines - drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes.
LSD - a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid.
THC - the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations.
Near Death Experience - an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death such as cardiac arrest often similiar to drug induced hallucinations.
Dualism - the presumption that mind and body are two distinct entities that interact.
Monism - the presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing.
Ecstasy - a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition.
Videos to Watch
Psych Sim 5 Activities
Articles to Read
Pictures for Visual Association
Beta, Alpha, Theta, Delta
Mnemonic to Help Memorize: Batman Ate Teenage Delinquents
Be a Turtle Dancer
States of Consciousness
Two different categories are seen in this chapter. Sleep and drugs. What happens when we go to sleep and why do we dream what we dream? In the drugs part, what kind of drugs cause different states of consciousness and what neurotransmitters play a part in that? Why do we become addicted to certain drugs and why