*Developmental Psychology - a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.
Zygote - the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo.
Embryo - the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month.
Fetus - the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.
Teratogens - agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) - a medical condition in which body deformation or facial development or mental ability of a fetus is impaired because the mother drank alcohol while pregnant.
*Rooting Reflex - a baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn toward the touch, open the mouth, and search for the nipple.
Habituation - decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner.
Maturation - biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
*Schema - a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.
*Assimilation - interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas.
*Accommodation - adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.
*Cognition - all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
*Sensorimotor Stage - in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.
*Object Permanence - the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived.
*Preoperational Stage - in Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.
*Conservation - the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.
*Egocentrism - in Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view.
Theory of Mind - people's ideas about their own and others' mental states -- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict..
Autism - a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind.
*Concrete Operational Stage - in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.
*Formal Operational Stage - in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.
Stranger Anxiety - the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age.
Attachment - an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.
*Critical Period - an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development.
Imprinting - the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.
Basic Trust - according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.
Self-Concept - a sense of one's identity and personal worth.
Adolescence - the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence.
Puberty - the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing.
Primary Sex Characteristics - the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible.
Secondary Sex Characteristics - non-reproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair.
Menarche - the first menstrual period.
Identity - one's sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.
Intimacy - in Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood.
Menopause - the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines.
Alzheimer's Disease - an irreversible, progressive brain disorder, characterized by the deterioration of memory, language, and eventually, physical functioning.
*Cross-Sectional Study - a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another.
*Longitudinal Study - research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period.
*Crystallized Intelligence - one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age.
*Fluid Intelligence - one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood.
Social Clock - the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement.
People to Know
*Mary Ainsworth - researched the effects of maternal separation on child development - secure vs. insecure attachment
*Albert Bandura - Social learning theory/modeling behavior (Bobo)
Diana Baumrind - named the parenting styles - authoritarian, permissive, authoritative
*Erik Erikson - Stages of psycho-social development ie. generativity vs stagnation; identity crisis
*Sigmund Freud - Stages of development - oral, anal, phallic, etc
*Piaget - Stages of development - concrete operational, formal operational, etc.
Carol Gilligan - Specialized and wrote books on girl's development
*Harry Harlow - Wire vs. soft monkey-attachment
*Kohlberg - Moral development-preconventional, conventional, post conventional
Lorenz - Imprinting (humans don't) "fly away home"
Vygotsky - Early psychologist who investigated the role of culture in child development
Videos to Watch
Psych Sim 5 Activities
Charts for Memorization
Jean Piaget's Stages for Cognitive Development
Lawrence Kohlberg's Stages to Moral Thinking
Erik Erikson's Stages for Psychosocial Development
Games to Play
Short, twenty-minute game about a girl named Amber whose looking for her friend Fio and goes through five stages of grief.
Either click the link for the download below and follow steps to install or watch the walkthrough video, which would also suffice if would rather watch someone else play it or are on an iPhone, Android, etc.
Steps to Play:
1. Click link and go to webpage.
2. The zip file will automatically start downloading, wait for it to finish.
3. Open up the zip file when finished and close out of the opened window. Extract all contents into a folder on your computer.
4. Double click "Winsetup" and click "Run" when asked.
5. Check the options page and click "Save and Run."
6. Play the game.
How to Play (Controls):
Use mouse to click and move character, use left mouse button to interact with objects and right mouse button to get information on an object. Move mouse to top of screen to get options to either "Save", "Load", or "Quit Game" and to retrieve objects. Options menu only available when you can see the mouse pointer in the game. When finished, hit "esc" on your keyboard to exit the game.
Developing Through the Life Span
Throughout our lives, the way we think and reason changes. Through these changes, chapter four aims to take you from day one through death in a human life. Why do children do what they do and act the way they act?