*Chromosomes - threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.
DNA - a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
*Genes - the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein.
Genome - the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes.
*Natural Selection - the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
Mutation - a random error in gene replication that leads to a change.
*Evolutionary Psychology - the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection.
*Gender - in psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female.
*Behavior Genetics - the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.
Environment - every non-genetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us.
*Identical Twins - twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms.
*Fraternal Twins - twins who develop from separate eggs. They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment.
*Temperament - a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.
*Heritability - the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes.
Interaction - the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity).
Molecular Genetics - the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes.
Culture - the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
*Norm - an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior.
Personal Space - the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies.
Memes - self-replicating ideas, fashions, and innovations passed from person to person.
X Chromosome - the sex chromosome found in both men and women.
Y Chromosome - the sex chromosome found only in males.
Testosterone - the most important of the male sex hormones.
*Role - a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.
*Gender Role - a set of expected behaviors for males and for females.
*Gender Identity - one's sense of being male or female.
*Gender Typing - the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role.
*Social Learning Theory - the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.
*Gender Schema Theory - the theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly.
Videos to Watch
Nature, Nurture and Human Diversity
This controversy still has psychologists fighting today: what has more influence over us? Nature or nurture? Do we have a right to point the finger at the parents' parenting or should we point it towards their genes? And finally, how does culture and environment actually affect us?