*Hindsight Bias - the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it.
Critical Thinking - thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions.
Theory - an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.
*Hypothesis - a testable prediction, often implied by a theory.
*Operational Definition - a statement of the procedures used to define research variables.
*Replication - repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
*Case Study - an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
*Survey - a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.
*False Consensus Effect - the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.
Population - all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study.
Random Sample - a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
*Naturalistic Observation - observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
*Correlation - a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
CORRELATION DOESN'T PROVE CAUSATION! ^.^
Scatterplot - a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation).
*Illusory Correlation - the perception of a relationship where none exists.
Experiment - a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process.
*Double-Blind Procedure - an experimental procedure in which both the research participant and the research staff are ignorant about whether the participants have received the treatment or the placebo.
*Placebo Effect - experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.
*Experimental Condition - the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
*Control Condition - the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
Random Assignment - assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups.
*Independent Variable - the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
*Dependent Variable - the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
*Mode - the most frequently occurring score in a distribution.
*Mean - the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores.
*Median - the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.
*Range - the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.
*Standard Deviation - a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.
*Statistical Significance - a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.
Culture - the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
Videos to Watch
Psych Sim 5 Activities
Pictures for Visual Association
The dependent variable depends on the independent variable. The independent variable manipulates the dependent variable. An independent variable is independent. It can most likely exist without a dependent variable.
Don't like the physics type example? Look at more psychological examples here:
Thinking Critically With Psychological Science
This chapter provides a scientific backbone into how research is done and how studies are conducted. How does one avoid bias? Know what kind of biases humans have. An informative chapter that focus on how information in this book was collected.